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Kennel Cough in Dogs

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Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis

 

Kennel cough, the common name that is given to infectious canine tracheobronchitis, is a very highly contagious respiratory disease among dogs. As the name of the disease suggests, it is typified by inflammation of the trachea and bronchi. This disease is found throughout the world and is known to infect a very high percentage of dogs at least once during their lifetime. It is also medically referred to as tracheobronchitis and Bordetella.

 

Young puppies can suffer the most severe complications that can result from this disease, since they have an underdeveloped immune system that is still strengthening. Also at increased risk are older dogs, which have decreased immune capabilities, and pregnant bitches, which also have lowered immunity to infections.

 

Symptoms

 

  • Dry hacking cough is the most common symptom
  • Cough may sound like honking
  • Retching
  • Watery nasal discharge
  • In mild cases, dogs would likely be active and eating normally
  • In severe cases, symptoms progress and can include pneumonia, inappetence, fever, lethargy and even death
  • Unvaccinated puppies and young dogs, or immunocompromised dogs might experience the most severe symptoms of the disease

 

Causes

 

Most of the time there has been a recent boarding that has placed the dog in contact with a number of other dogs.

 

Some of the most common causes that contribute to the infectious canine tracheobronchitis disease are Bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza virus, and mycoplasma. Apart from the canine herpes virus, reovirus and the canine adenovirus can also cause this disease. As any one of these organisms can cause the symptoms of this disease, in most of the cases, the result of the disease is thought to be more than one organism combined. However, the most common and important organism that causes tracheobronchitis is the parainfluenza virus. This particular virus causes gentle symptoms that last less than a week, unless there is an involvement with other bacteria.

 

The Bordetella bronchiseptica is also a common type of bacteria that is often isolated from this disorder. According to the clinical signs the visible onset of infection usually occurs three to four days after initial exposure, but when it is combiend with other organisms – such as a combination parinfluenza-bordatella infection – the symptoms may last for up to three weeks.

 

 

Diagnosis

 

The diagnosis for this disease is largely based upon the type of symptoms that are being presented and your dog's history with regards to exposure to other dogs. You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health and onset of symptoms. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. These blood tests, along with viral isolation and bacterial cultures, will be performed in order to verify individual agents that are causing the kennel cough.

 

Comments  9

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  • Bordetella article
    02/13/2012 09:01am

    I own a boarding facility and continually educate myself on any infectious disease or bacteria that could possibly infect a owner's pet. However, I am always disappointed how these articles immediately blame a boarding environment. I realize there is more of an incidence in a boarding situation; however, many of us have taken steps to ensure that upper respiratory does not break out in our facilities (eletrostatic filters, air conditioners that exchange the air frequently, cleanliness, proper sanitation procedures, etc). In Florida, where bordetella is prevelant, we have seen many cases of dogs getting it at the dog park and also from staying at a vet clinic around other infected animals. I would urge you to stop "blaming" only boarding facilities for the cause of this virus as we all know a dog can get it in it's own back yard or even at the veterinarian's office by being exposed to an infected pet.

  • 05/09/2014 12:25pm

    My neighbor just adopted 2 dogs from the animal shelter, both of which were diagnosed with kennel cough, and being treated by our local vet. Was just wondering since we are neighbors, our yards are separated by a chain link fence, her little dogs can put their faces through to touch my big dog. My dog is always current on her vaccines ... but still curious if my dog can get this by touching noses with the neighbors?

  • 05/09/2014 03:49pm

    The short answer is yes, your dog can still get it. Just like the flu in humans, there are many different strains of bordetella virus (a/k/a kennel cough) and the vaccine does not cover all strains. That being said, most dogs that have a good immune system and are properly vaccinated should not get the virus. On another note, some dogs are carriers of the virus but are asymptomatic, meaning they show no symptoms but can still spread the virus.

  • 05/09/2014 10:28pm

    Thank you ... Our Akita is very healthy, had her out running today, no signs nor symptoms ... will keep a close eye on her. Any idea what the incubation period is? Rascal, and Charlie (neighbors dogs) are finished with their meds today, not over the cough yet ... and have a follow up appointment on Monday with our local vet.

  • Bordetella Question
    08/17/2014 01:54pm

    We just got back from vacation. We board our 2 year old GSD and a friend watches our 8 year old GSD/Chow mix. Our 2 year old was there for 8 days and developed a slight cough about 4 days ago. She has been vaccinated, but we still suspect it is a mild case of Bortadella. All of her mannerisms are the same, she just stops every now and then to cough. My question is how long is a vaccinated dog with mild symptoms contagious? Thanks!

  • Kennel Cough question
    09/14/2014 10:51am

    This is my dogs second diagnosis with kennel cough- both times through a missed vaccination, both times at the same time of year. We never board him, or take him to a dog park. He must just be truly unlucky when greeting dogs on the street.

    Last year, it took about 2 months to clear up- he was on clavimox and cough suppressent. This year the vet put him on doxycycline- he is on his last day (7th) and still coughing. They said if it doesn't clear to come back for xrays. Does this should right or we take him to another vet?

  • rescue with kennel cough
    09/30/2014 12:04am

    I am going to look at a rescue dog about a year old and I just found out that he has kennel cough. They said he is not on medication and would not let him be adopted until he is completely well. This is making me very nervous about getting him. What are the chances of the dog getting it again? Suggestions please.

  • 11/04/2014 12:14pm

    The chances of the dog getting it again are the same as any other dog: very good chance if in surroundings where other dogs may have it (such as the kennel); or good if it is a chronic condition that has been diagnosed as in the 'Kennel Cough in Dogs' article above. Most dogs will get a mild case at sometime in their lifetime, particularly if they have been stressed by relocation (resistance down) and/or have been in with many other dogs (any one of which can spread it easily). You may want to ask the shelter whether they have quarantined the dog. If not, relapse and spreading is likely. A reputable group will quarantine. Generally, if the dog is a HEALTHY vet-checked dog more than six months old, it will not be a particularly problematic case. Don't panic if your dog later coughs once in a while, either. This is normal, just as in humans. I always take my "adoptees" straight to my own vet to be checked out (and answer any concerns I have) before I take them home. Good luck!!

  • Vacinated dog w/ virus
    11/18/2014 05:54am

    Can a dog get Kennel Cough even though he is routinely vaccinated? A friend of mine has her English Lab, who was being treated at a facility for a skin infection, has somehow contracted Kennel Cough. His health and immune system is compromised due to being on various antibiotics in an attempt to fight off MRSA as well as PseudoMona (sp?). Her Vet told her that despite the fact that he is routinely vaccinated, that there is a new strain that is resistant to the Bordetella vaccine. Is this true?

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