Copper-Storage Hepatopathy in Dogs
Copper storage hepatopathy is a condition caused by an abnormal accumulation of copper in the animal's liver, which leads to hepatitis and progressive damage and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) over the long term. This condition may be secondary to a primary disease or the result of genetic-based abnormal copper metabolism.
Bedlington Terriers, Doberman Pinschers, and Labrador Retrievers are dog breeds known to be susceptible to this type of genetically based disease. In the case of Doberman Pinschers, copper storage hepatopathy is more prevalent in females than males.
The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library.
Symptoms and Types
Primary copper liver diseases (medically referred to as hepatopathies) generally fall into one of three categories:
- Subclinical disease: a condition where the disease is present in the organ or body, but not detectable by abnormal signs or changes in the dog
- Acute (sudden) disease which most frequently affects young dogs; associated with a condition that causes the death of liver tissue (hepatic necrosis)
- Chronic progressive disease in which symptoms are observed in middle-aged and older dogs with chronic hepatitis, with damage and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis)
Conversely, secondary copper hepatopathies show symptoms of progressive signs of liver disease due to chronic hepatitis or progressive cirrhosis. Liver disease in which the flow of bile is slowed or stopped is known as cholestatic liver disease; the abnormal flow of bile results in secondary copper retention.
Both types may display symptoms in their acute or chronic forms; they are as follows:
- Yellowish discoloration of skin and moist tissues (icterus or jaundice)
- Moist tissues of the body (mucous membranes) are pale due to low red blood cell count; simply referred to as anemia
- Dark urine due to the presence of bilirubin (bilirubinuria)
- Hemoglobin in the urine (hemoglobinuria)
- Weight loss
- Excessive thirst and urination (polydipsia and polyuria)
- Abdominal distention due to fluid build up in the abdomen (ascites)
- Yellowish discoloration of skin and moist tissues (icterus or jaundice),
- Spontaneous bleeding, black or tarry stools (melena)
- Nervous system dysfunction due to the liver being unable to break down ammonia in the body (hepatic encephalopathy)
It is important to note that dogs can be affected by copper storage hepatopathy at any age. Genetics, however, is the main contributing factor in contracting this liver disease. Here is some information that is known about the contributing genetic factors:
- An autosomal recessive trait in Bedlington terriers due to the lack of a specific gene (COMMD1) coding for a liver protein involved in the excretion of copper in the bile is confirmed
- At one time, possibly as many as two-thirds of Bedlington terriers either were carriers of the gene or were affected by the disease; with recent genetic screening, the incidence is now much lower
- The prevalence in certain lines of West Highland white terriers appears to be high, but the incidence in all West Highland White Terriers is low
- The mode of inheritance in West Highland White Terriers, Skye terriers, and other affected breeds is unknown
- A reported four to six percent of Doberman Pinschers may have chronic hepatitis, a sign of copper storage hepatopathy
A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health, including a history of its symptoms, and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition. The history you provide may give your veterinarian clues as to whether the condition is of primary or secondary origin.
A tissue sample will then be taken from the dog's liver for laboratory analysis (biopsy), and ultrasound images will be taken of the abdominal area to examine the condition of the liver.
A condition in which the skin becomes yellow in color as do the mucous membranes; this is due to excess amounts of bilirubin.
Transmitting genes from parent to child
A condition in which the liver becomes inflamed
The term for black feces that has blood in it
Another term for jaundice
A condition of dead tissue
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
A medical condition involving excessive thirst
Referring to the liver
Eliminating or the material that has actually been eliminated
The fluid created by the liver that helps food in the stomach to be digested.
The collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Any substance known to eliminate feeling; usually applied during a painful medical procedure.
A condition of the blood in which normal red blood cell counts or hemoglobin are lacking.
A certain pigment that is produced when hemoglobin is destroyed.
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
A substance that causes chemical change to another
A disease of the brain of any type
The process of making something larger by dilating or stretching it
Term used to imply that a situation or condition is more severe than usual; also used to refer to a disease having run a short course or come on suddenly.