Fish oil is probably the most common supplement added to the pet diet. This is not without good reason. Growing numbers of studies confirm that the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fats in fish oil has a beneficial effect in treating a host of abnormalities in pets. Research confirming these same effects abound in the human literature.
Now treatment for cancer, joint, heart, kidney, skin and intestinal problems, as well as geriatric dementia, often include generous amounts of fish oil and its abundant DHA and EPA omega-3 fatty acids. The positive effect on skin and coat quality has moved large numbers of pet owners to add fish oil to the diets of their young and normal pets. Overall, the trend to supplement with fish oil is positive for pet health, but there is a flip side to that coin. Too much of a good thing may have adverse effects on health.
Side Effects of Fish Oil Supplements for Pets
- The anti-inflammatory effect of EPA and DHA increases the production of certain chemicals that alter platelet function. Platelets or thrombocytes are cells produced in the bone marrow that aid in the formation of blood clots. This is an important first line of defense to prevent blood loss from trauma or other events or conditions causing hemorrhage. The chemicals produced by EPA and DHA decrease platelet activity and aggregation to form clots. Animals fed excessive amounts of fish oil would have a tendency to suffer higher blood loss when injured or afflicted by conditions that cause bleeding. This would also be an important consideration for pets needing surgery, especially procedures on body organs or parts of the body with heavy blood flow.
- The anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA also interfere with wound healing. Inflammation at the site of a wound promotes the migration of white blood cells to the site to begin early wound healing processes. EPA and DHA decreases this necessary wound healing step and slows the body’s ability to repair the skin and promote new skin production. This is especially pronounced in the first five days of the wound healing process. Such an effect could be serious for an animal undergoing an extensive surgical procedure that was also fed high levels of dietary fish oil.
- The inflammatory response of immune system and white blood cells is important to effectively control threats from infection, cancer, and other abnormalities. This results in the production of a host of chemicals that promote the inflammatory response. The anti-inflammatory effects of EPA and DHA interfere with this important function. That is why fish oil is so helpful for treating conditions with an excessive inflammatory response like allergies and the skin problems associated with them. However a necessary level of inflammatory response must be maintained to protect the body and excessive amounts of EPA and DHA can interfere with that process.
Safe Levels of Fish Oil for Pets
The National Research Council has established a safe upper limit of EPA and DHA for dogs. It has yet to establish one for cats. In light of that, it is probably safe to use the guidelines for dogs for both species. Translating the data suggests that a dose between 20-55mg combined EPA and DHA per pound of body weight is safe for dogs and cats. This dose is far less than those used to treat serious conditions where the risk of side effects is less important than the benefits of treatment. Consult with your veterinarian when treating conditions requiring higher dosages.
Dr. Ken Tudor
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