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The squamous epithelium is the outer layer of the epithelium, consisting of flat, scale-like cells. The epithelium is the cellular covering of all of the internal and external surfaces of the body, effectively protecting the organs, inner cavities and outer surfaces of the body in a continuous layer of multi-layered tissue. A squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is a type of metastasizing tumor that arises from the squamous epithelium in the lung cavity.
This is a rare form of primary tumor in cats. However, it has a high metastatic potential, especially if it reaches the regional lymph nodes.
You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your cat's health and onset of symptoms. A standard physical examination will include routine laboratory tests, with a complete blood count, biochemical profiles, and urinalysis. The results of the blood tests may reveal an increased number of leukocytes or white blood cells (leukocytosis) in the blood, indicative of an invasion that the body is fighting against. Biochemistry profiles in some patients may show abnormally high levels of calcium (hypercalcemia).
Another diagnostic tool that your veterinarian can use to ascertain your cat's condition is an endoscope, a minimally invasive tubular device that can be inserted into the body without having to perform surgery in order to view the tumor up close and to take fluid and tissue samples from within the lungs. These samples can then be sent to a veterinary pathologist for further evaluation. The results of these tests usually provide an initial diagnosis. Your veterinarian will also take thoracic (chest) x-rays, which may show a single mass arising from a single focus. The trachea may appear to be displaced or compressed due to the presence of a mass, or tumor. In some patients a partial or complete airway obstruction may also be seen.
The only way to confirm a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma is to take a lung tissue sample (biopsy). This sample will be sent to a veterinary pathologist, who will cut into very small sections to examine under a microscope.
Pertaining to the chest
The windpipe; it carries air from the bronchi to the mouth
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
An increase in the number of white blood cells (abnormal)
A type of instrument that is used to look inside the body
A covering of cells that turns into the outermost layer of skin and covers the body
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes