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A sarcoid is a tumor found on the skin of horses, donkeys, and mules. It is one of the most common skin neoplasias seen in horses. It is generally benign and non-life-threatening but can be locally invasive. Sarcoids can have several different appearances and sometimes look like a thickened and bleeding area (ulceration) that may crust over as it heals. Other skin lesions, such as the equine papilloma, can be confused for sarcoids. However, the papilloma will go away on its own over time, while the sarcoid will rarely regress.
There are six different classifications of sarcoids based on their appearance.
1. Nodular sarcoids
2. Fibroplastic sarcoids
3. Verrucous sarcoids
4. Occult or flat sarcoids
5. Malevolent sarcoids
6. Mixed sarcoids
There has been no specific cause identified for sarcoids, but the bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is thought to be a potential contributor. Both BPV types 1 and 2 have been associated with the formation of sarcoid disease in horses. Research has yet to determine the method in which the disease is transmitted, but several theories exist.
One theory is that skin that has been wounded previously is more prone to development of sarcoid. Another is that flies act as a source of transmission (vector) of the virus, as they land on wound sites on various animals. And still others believe that sharing contaminated tack or equipment between infected horses and other animals will transmit the virus.
There is no indication of a sex or breed predilection for sarcoids. However, greater than 70% of these tumors develop in horses younger than 4 years. Sarcoids may arise spontaneously or sometimes at a site of previous trauma.
A veterinarian may be able to diagnose the lesions by appearance and location of the tumors only; however, a positive diagnosis can only be made using a biopsy of the skin. In some cases, a veterinarian may not wish to take a skin biopsy, as it may make the sarcoid irritated and worsen.
Other potential skin lesions should be ruled out, and your veterinarian will check for other skin conditions such as fungal infections (dermatophytosis) and warts (papillomas).
The occurrence or invasion of pathogens away from the point where they originally occurred
Anything pertaining to the blood vessel system in the body
A fleshy, lobed growth of the skin
Equipment used for riding horses or driving horses
A carrier of a disease; helps to move a disease from one animal to the next.
Term used to refer to an infection that is present but has not yet begun to spread
A type of light device that transfers a bright beam; this is used for many medical purposes
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
A term used to describe anything related to cattle.
The name for the species of horses, donkeys, mules
The area between the abdomen and thighs; the inguinal area
Not being able to cause harm; the opposite of malignant.