Urinary incontinence is clinically described as a condition in which there is loss of voluntary control of urination, usually observed as accidental urine leakage. This is often caused by a loss of bladder tone (normal tension and sensitivity) or an obstruction of the bladder. For example, a partial obstruction may cause the urine to backflow into the bladder and lead to muscle tension and weakness due to bladder distension.
Urinary incontinence is most common in middle-aged rabbits (3-5 years old). And although it mainly affects the urinary and kidneys systems, the rabbit may also have skin burns and irritation around the genital areas due to urine leakage.
In addition to urine scalding on the skin, rabbits with incontinence may dribble small amounts of urine when picked up or in atypical areas (carpet, upholestry, your lap). The urine is typically cloudy or thick, and beige to brown in color. The bladder may also markedly increase in size if the underlying disease is not treated promptly, and may even fill most of the abdominal area, giving the rabbit a bloated appearance.
Because there are several possible causes for this condition, a differential diagnosis is the best method for identifying the underlying cause of the incontinence. This process is guided by deeper inspection of the apparent outward symptoms, ruling out each of the more common causes until the correct disorder is settled upon and can be treated appropriately. Initial tests may differentiate between other causes of improper urine output and discolored urine, which can attributed to something as mundane as the diet.
If blood and urine analysis are taken, it will typically demonstrate abnormal levels of calcium and enzyme content. The urine sample will also be examined for bacterial infections. X-rays, meanwhile, may demonstrate calcium deposits in the urinary tract and/or kidney stones. A complete neurologic examination may be necessary -- with an examination of anal tone, tail tone, and perineal sensation -- to check if the nervous system's mechanisms are functioning properly.
Also referred to as a UTI; a medical condition of the urinary tract and system in which the cells are damaged by microorganisms.
A medical condition; implies that the patient is unable to control their urination.
Deviating from the normal; not typical.
A crop; often eaten by horses as a vital source of fiber and protein. Alfalfa has compound leaves made up of three small leaves.
A substance that causes chemical change to another