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An abscess is a localized collection of pus contained within a capsule-like lump under the skin. Unlike those of cats and dogs, abscesses in rabbits usually do not burst and drain fluid. These abscesses can grow very quickly, often extending into the surrounding soft tissue and bone.
Abscesses are extremely common in pet rabbits and are the most common cause of swelling beneath the skin. There is no certain age or sex more susceptible to abscesses, although dwarf and lop-eared rabbits are believed to be predisposed to abscesses and dental disease.
An abscess is usually the secondary symptom of another health problem, thus symptoms will vary, depending on the primary cause. For example, if the abscess is a result of dental disease, additional symptoms may include discharge from the nose or eyes, anorexia, and depression. A physical examination by a veterinarian is necessary to detect additional symptoms and diagnose the exact cause.
There are many causes that can lead to the presence of abscesses. One primary cause is dental disease resulting from food lodged in the teeth or gums. Another cause is bacterial infection such as fusobacterium nucleatum. These cases are often related to dental disease or abscesses in the mouth. There are many other types of bacteria that lead to abscess, including pasteurella multocida, staphylococcus aureus, and streptococcus spp. Bites and foreign objects piercing the skin also lead to abscesses.
Some risk factors can increase the odds of developing abscesses. For example, elongated cheek teeth (known as mandibles) may develop from a diet lacking rough feed, and may lead to the formation of abscesses.
The exact diagnostic procedures undertaken will depend on the location of the abscess and any other symptoms. For rabbits with facial abscesses, a thorough oral examination is crucial for diagnosis. Another common diagnostic procedure is to take a tissue sample from the affected area and test for bacterial infection. Further tests may include urine analysis, X-rays, and ultrasounds to see if other organs are affected.
A product made of fluid, cell waste, and cells
A localized infection, usually a lesion filled with pus. Can be large or small in size.