While many animals in the wild depend on the acorn for their nutritional needs, the acorn poses a toxicity risk to some animals, including horses, cattle, goats, and sheep. Although cattle are much more sensitive to the toxins in acorns than horses, large amounts of ingested acorns can induce severe illness. This is due to the tannic and gallic acids in the acorn, which can cause severe damage to the gastrointestinal system and kidneys.
Acorn poisoning is caused by the ingestion of large amounts of acorns, oak leaves, or branches. Many times acorns are ingested by accident, and in small amounts they are harmless, especially when combined with the normal roughage of hay and grass. There is anecdotal evidence that some horses develop a liking bordering on addiction for acorns and will actually seek them out, overindulging to the point of illness.
Diagnosis can be difficult unless the horse has an obvious history of acorn ingestion. Occasionally, acorn remnants can be found in the horse’s manure.
The failure of the kidneys to perform their proper functions
A type of animal feed that is high in fiber; may include hay or pasture crops
The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine
The collection of fluid in the tissue
A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts
Any substance used to combat the effects of certain poisons.