It's important to be practical when it comes to feeding bones. Their nutritional benefits to your dog are derived from the soft tissues attached to the bone such as meat, cartilage, fat and connective tissue ... not from the bones themselves.
Bone is composed of minerals that are common in many ordinary foods. The scant protein matrix in bone is mainly collagen and dogs can't digest and assimilate collagen! So where's all that great nutritional benefit that is supposed to be coming from the actual "bone" really coming from? It comes from the meat, cartilage, fat and connective tissue that happens to be along for the ride.
Just for fun, though, lets assume there are great benefits to be derived from feeding bones, but with that benefit comes the slight chance that drastic major surgery may be needed to save your dog's life as a result of feeding those bones. WHY DO IT??!! Very nutritious foods are available --some even have ground bone as part of the recipe and the ground bone poses no threat.
Image: jojo nicdao / via Flickr