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Heart Valve Infection (Infective Endocarditis) in Dogs

Infective Endocarditis in Dogs

 

Infective endocarditis is a medical condition in which the inner lining of heart has become inflamed in response to an infection in the body. Generalized infections in the body may invade the inner lining of heart, as well as the valves of the heart. This type of infective endocarditis can occur in response to any infection of the body.

 

Endocarditis is more common in middle-sized to large breed dogs, with most between the ages of four and six. Males are generally at higher risk than females. If the underlying disease if not treated in time, complications can lead to heart failure and death.

 

Symptoms and Types

 

A variable set of symptoms may be present in patient depending upon the nature and site of infection, complications and extent of affects on heart. The following symptoms may be present in an affected dog:

 

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Bluish discoloration of skin
  • Weakness
  • Lethargy
  • Anorexia
  • Weight loss
  • Reluctance to move
  • Body aches and pains
  • Symptoms related to heart problems
  • Difficult breathing
  • Intermittent lameness
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances

 

Causes

 

  • Bacterial Infections
  • Previous major surgery

 

Diagnosis

 

You will need to give your veterinarian a complete background history of your dog’s health, including information about the onset of symptoms, any illnesses or injuries your dog has experienced, any surgical procedures, and the duration and frequency of symptoms that have been apparent.

 

Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination, including basic laboratory testing: a complete blood count (CBC) test, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis. The results of these tests may reveal information related to the underlying infection, and may point to the organs being affected.

 

Blood cultures will help to determine the causative agent involved in the infection and will also allow your veterinarian to determine the most suitable antibiotics for treatment of the underlying infection. A visual examination of the heart, using radiographic (i.e., X-ray) studies can help your veterinarian to determine the extent of heart involvement, and echocardiography, which uses ultrasound to image the inner organs, is an excellent tool for a detailed evaluation of the heart's functioning ability. Your veterinarian will also need to measure the electrical activity of the heart, which is done using an electrocardiogram (ECG) to record the heart's movement and impulses.

 

 

 

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