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Histiocytic disease are uncommon skin disorders resulting from rapid and excessive growth of cells. This cellular behavior is medically described as cell proliferation.
It occurs in young to middle-aged dogs, with a mean age of five years. There is no apparent gender predilection, and skin disease is not restricted to particular breeds, but systemic disease – where the skin disorder spread into the body system – has been reported predominantly in Bernese mountain dogs.
Other symptoms and types
Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your dog, including a complete blood profile, chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. Extensive laboratory work will need to be essential for making a conclusive diagnosis. A biopsy (tissue and fluid sample) of the affected organs and/or lymph nodes will need to be collected, a cytologic examination (a microscopic examination of the cells) of bone marrow aspiration or biopsy may show systemic histiocytic infiltration. Diagnosis of histiocytosis is often difficult because the results of the microscopic analysis of the cells are not always definitive.
Immunohistochemistry, where a tissue sample is used for the detection of antigens (the molecules that bind to antibodies), typing the tumor and testing the tumor cell's reaction to therapy, can be effectively used for diagnosing a histiocytic disease. Immunohistochemical staining may also be useful for verifying the histiocytic origin of cells.
Fluid therapy or blood transfusions may be required, depending on the clinical findings.
The effectiveness of the treatment is determined by repeated physical examinations, complete blood counts, biochemistry profiles, and diagnostic imaging. The prognosis for dogs with malignant histiocytosis is extremely poor. Death usually occurs within a few months of the diagnosis.
The sac that holds the testes; may also be referred to as the scrotal sac
Found beneath the skin
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ
The term for the nostrils and muscles in the upper and lower lips of an animal; may also be used to describe a type of tool used to keep an animal from biting
Having a hard time breathing; breathing takes great pains
Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes
Something that becomes worse or life threatening as it spreads
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.