Maxillary and Mandibular Fractures in Cats
The mandible, also called the jawbone, forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place, whereas the maxilla forms the upper jaw and holds the upper teeth in place.
Upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible) fractures are seen in cats mostly due to trauma and injuries.
Symptoms and Types
Symptoms vary greatly depending upon the type, location, extent, and cause of injury. Some of the more common ones include:
- Facial deformity
- Oral or nasal bleeding
- Inability to open or close the jaw
- Fractured teeth
- Facial distortion
Although various types of injuries and trauma are typically responsible for fractures of the upper and lower jaw, certain risk factors may predispose a cat to the fractures, including oral infections (e.g., periodontal disease, osteomyelitis), certain metabolic diseases (e.g., hypoparathyroidism), and congenital or hereditary factors resulting in a weakened or deformed jaw.
You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health. The important thing your cat’s veterinarian would like to know is about the injury or the trauma history. After recording your cat’s history, your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination. He or she will closely examine the oral cavity, jaw bones, teeth, and other related structures. He or she will also take X-rays of the oral cavity to look into the location and extent of the fracture.
Surgery is most often used to repair the fracture. However, there are several methods to accomplish the surgical repair. Your cat’s veterinarian will give his or her expert opinion based on the type of fracture, available equipment, supplies, and the pros and cons of performing each option. The ultimate goal of surgical intervention is to reduce the fracture, establish the natural occlusion of bones and teeth, and stabilize the fracture to enhance the healing process. Pain killers and antibiotics are also prescribed to control pain and infections, respectively.
Living and Management
Overall prognosis depends on type, extent, location of trauma, quality of home care, and selection of treatment modality. Healing typically takes 4 to 12 weeks, and thus, requires good owner compliance during the treatment period to aid in healing.
Wax is often prescribed to be applied over irritating wires used during surgery. And oral irrigants are used for oral hygiene and to reduce the number of bacteria in the oral cavity. After surgery, your cat will feel very sore and will need painkillers for a few days. Good pain management will help in the healing process; this involves administering pain killers at the prescribed dosage and time.
A postoperative evaluation, including X-rays, will be done after to weeks to see if the fracture has been stabilized and is healing well. There is always a chance of refracture after the support has been removed, so extra care will be needed to prevent such a recurrence. Provide good cage rest and minimize any risk of trauma. Don’t allow other pets to come in contact with your cat and keep it in noise-free environment.
Also, due to the involvement of the oral cavity, ingestion and chewing of food is highly painful and difficult. You will need to maintain the recommended nutritional and fluid diet during the healing process, paying extra attention to your cat’s weight. Soft food is recommended for easy chewing and ingestion.
A medical condition in which bone and bone marrow becomes inflamed
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
The type of contact that occurs between the teeth where chewing is concerned
The term for the upper bone of the jaw
The term for the lower jaw bone; this is the only bone in the skull that has the ability to move
Anything that looks different from what is considered to be normal and healthy for that species