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Stargazing Syndrome in Reptiles

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Stargazing describes an unusual body position that is seen in some reptiles, especially snakes, which suffer from a disease or injury that inhibits the normal function of the central nervous system (i.e., the brain and spinal cord). This, in turn, causes the affected reptiles to twist their heads and necks and look upwards towards the sky. Stargazing is not a disease in and of itself, but is a symptom of other disorders, the most important of which is a viral infection of boa constrictors and pythons called inclusion body disease.
 

Symptoms and Types

 

A stargazer’s bizarre posture is certainly its most noticeable symptom, but depending on the underlying cause, other problems may also be evident, including:

 

  • Difficulty moving
  • Disorientation
  • Depression
  • Tremors
  • Seizures
  • Inability to roll off their backs and into a normal position

 

Boas with inclusion body disease often have a history of vomiting, disinterest in food, weight loss and skin problems. Meanwhile, pythons develop severe neurologic problems so rapidly, that other symptoms are generally not noted.  

 

Causes

 

Stargazing behavior can be seen with any disease or condition that adversely affects a reptile’s central nervous system. Some of the most common include:

 

  • Traumatic injuries
  • Excessively high or low body temperatures
  • Exposure to toxic substances
  • Infections with bacteria, parasites, viruses or other microorganisms

 

Diagnosis

 

Stargazing is identified by simply observing the reptile’s body position and behavior. Diagnosing the underlying cause, however, may require blood tests, X-rays, or tissue biopsies.

 

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