Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies in Rabbits
Obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract occurs when a rabbit swallows large amounts of hair, fur, bedding, or other foreign objects that do not belong in the digestive tract. Usually, these materials are absorbed and excreted through the feces. But when the rabbit is fed a low fiber diet, the gastric muscles become less active, and a stasis, or inactivity, develops. As a result these foreign materials build up in the digestive tract, causing an obstruction. This low motility can also lead to dehydration of the abdominal contents, further drying up the contents.
Some of the other materials that may be swallowed and cause accumulation include cat litter, heavy metal, and wires (such as from caging materials). If the obstruction is significant enough, loss of muscle mass and cardiac complications may occur and a sudden life-threatening emergency situation may develop. It is usually seen in older rabbits that are being fed poor diets or are refusing to eat the high in fiber foods that are offered to them.
Symptoms and Types
Many rabbits with gastrointestinal obstructions have a recent history of illness or stressful events. They will initially stop eating pellets but continue to eat treats, often followed by complete loss of appetite (anorexia). Some rabbits may seem bright and alert, but will also display signs of pain such as teeth grinding, hunched posture, and an unwillingness to move. Other common symptoms associated with gastrointestinal obstructions include:
- Abnormally small stool droppings
- Progressive abdominal distension
- Excessive salivation
- Persistent attempts at swallowing, with or without food in mouth
Some of the main risk factors include:
- Diets with inadequate amounts of coarse fiber content
- Inactivity due to pain, obesity, or cage confinement
- Anesthesia and surgical procedures affecting motility of intestinal muscles
- Unsupervised chewing behavior and access to foreign materials
- Underlying dental disease or injury, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, or metabolic disease
You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your rabbit's health, eating habits, and onset of symptoms. He or she will then perform a thorough physical exam on your rabbit, palpating the abdomen to feel for hard masses -- the abdomen may or may not be distended, depending on the size of the mass or the length of the time your rabbit has been affected by this condition. A buildup of fluid or gas may be palpable in the intestinal area, as it will be unable to move past the obstruction. The animal may even have a low heart rate due to the stress of the situation.
To make a precise diagnosis, your veterinarian will need to view the abdominal area internally, to be sure that there is in fact a mass in the intestinal tract, and to pinpoint the exact location of the obstruction. He or she will also need to differentiate between other conditions such as masses due to tumors or injuries to the abdomen (e.g., scar tissue), from obstruction due to an ingested mass.
Visual diagnostics will include X-ray imaging, and endoscopy examination. The latter method uses a small camera that is attached to a flexible tube, and which can be inserted by way of the mouth into the actual space to be examined. In this way, your veterinarian can get a more precise image of the cause of the blockage. Depending on the size and type of blockage that is present, your veterinarian may be able to use tools that can be attached to endoscopes to remove the material that is blocking the intestinal tract, or to gather a tissue sample for biopsy.
The eating of grasses and plants that are low to the ground
The ability to create a disease where a disease might not normally be found, usually due to an ill timed or unlikely weakness
A type of drug that is known to calm an animal or put it to sleep
The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine
The feces of an animal
A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts
The whole system involved in digestion from mouth to anus
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
Anything having to do with the stomach