Megaesophagus in Cats
Megaesophagus is the enlargement of the esophagus, a muscular tube that runs from the throat to the stomach. The esophagus functions solely to deliver food from the mouth to the stomach. Magaesophagus involves a lack of motility required for the movement of food and liquid down to the stomach and can be the result of a variety of underlying diseases or causes.
Siamese and Siamese-related cats are found to be predisposed to the this condition.
Symptoms and Types
- Nasal discharge
- Increased respiratory noises
- Weight loss (cachexia)
- Extreme hunger or lack of appetite (anorexia)
- Excessive drooling (ptyalism)
- Bad breath (halitosis)
- Poor growth
Megaesophagus can either be congenital in nature (born with) or acquired later in life. The congenital form is typically idiopathic or due an unknown cause; although it is rarely due to myasthenia gravis. The acquired form is also commonly idiopathic, but may also be due to:
- Neuromuscular disease (e.g., myasthenia gravis, dysautonomia, myositis)
- Esophageal tumor
- Foreign body in esophagus
- Inflammation of esophagus
- Toxicity (e.g., lead, thallium)
- Parasitic infections
Your veterinarian will first ask you for a thorough history of your cat’s health. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination on your cat and attempt to differentiate, with your description, whether it is regurgitating or vomiting, which is important in ruling out underlying diseases that cause vomiting. The shape of expelled material, presence of undigested food, and length of time from ingestion to vomiting (or regurgitation) will also help differentiate between these two issues.
Routine laboratory tests, including complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry profile, and urinalysis results, are usually normal in cats with megaesophagus. However, abnormalities related to underlying diseases or complications, like aspiration pneumonia, may be seen. Radiographic studies will show the enlarged esophagus filled with fluid, air, or food, and will help identify abnormalities related to aspiration pneumonia.
More advanced techniques, like esophagoscopy, will be sometimes be employed, too. Esophagoscopy allows for the examination of the interior of the esophagus using an esophagoscope, a thin, tube-like instrument with and light and lens for viewing the inner areas of esophagus. It also allows for the removal of foreign bodies, evaluation of obstruction, and neoplasia.
The major goal of therapy is to treat the underlying cause. However, it is also important that cats with compromised feed intake are meeting their daily nutritional requirements. Common food items recommended by the veterinarian will include liquid gruel, small meatballs, blenderized slurries, and other palatable, high energy foods.
Depending on the underlying cause of the problem, surgery may be employed. For instance, in cases of a foreign body, it will be removed immediately to provide relief and prevent further complications. Aspiration pneumonia is another life-threatening problem that requires immediate hospitalization, where oxygen therapy, antibiotics, and other medications are used to treat the condition.
Living and Management
Follow the guidelines related to care and nutritional requirements for your cat. Recumbent animals may require extra care; soft bedding and turning the animal every four hours are essential. If your cat is not able to take feed, your veterinarian may pass a feeding tube directly into the stomach for feeding purposes. He or she will teach you how to properly use such equipment, though it is important to clean it after each use. Regular weighing of your cat is also required to ensure it is at an adequate range (not losing too much, but not too heavy either).
For patients able to take feed, special arrangements are required for correct feeding to prevent aspiration pneumonia. These animals are kept in an upright position for 10 to 15 minutes after eating or drinking, and both food and water bowls need to be elevated (45 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit) from the floor.
You will need to visit your veterinarian for regular follow-ups to evaluate your cat and treatment progress. Thoracic radiographs are repeated if aspiration pneumonia is suspected. Laboratory testing will be repeated in cases with confirmed aspiration pneumonia diagnosis.
Most cats with megaesophagus require life-long therapy and commitment and patience from you. Unfortunately, cats suffering from congenital forms of the diseases, or in whom the underlying cause could not be identified, carry a very poor prognosis. Some animals may die due to complications, like aspiration pneumonia.
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
The return of food into the oral cavity after it has been swallowed
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
A medical condition in which muscles become inflamed
The term for weakness of the muscles
Relating to a disease of unknown origin, which may or may not have arisen spontaneously
The term for an esophagus that is enlarged abnormally
The tube that extends from the mouth to the stomach