Pancreatitis in Cats
The pancreas is part of the endocrine and digestive system, which is integral for the digestion of foods, producing the enzymes that digest food, and producing insulin. When the pancreas becomes inflamed, the flow of enzymes into the digestive tract can become disrupted, forcing the enzymes out of the pancreas and into the abdominal area.
If this occurs, the digestive enzymes will begin to break down fat and proteins in the other organs, as well as in the pancreas. In effect, the body begins to digest itself. Because of their proximity to the pancreas, the kidney and liver can also be affected when this progression takes place, and the abdomen will become inflamed, and possibly infected as well. If bleeding occurs in the pancreas, shock, and even death can follow.
Inflammation of the pancreas (or pancreatitis) often progresses rapidly in cats, but can often be treated without any permanent damage to the organ. However, if pancreatitis goes long-term without treatment, severe organ, and even brain damage can occur.
Pancreatitis can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the petMD health library.
There are a variety of symptoms that may be observed in cats, including:
- Loss of appetite (anorexia)
- Weight loss (more common in cats)
- Fatigue and sluggishness
- Mild to severe abdominal pain (may become more sever after eating)
- Increased heart rate
- Difficulty breathing
There are several possible causes of inflammation to the pancreas. Some of them are nutritional factors, such as high levels of fat in the blood (lipemia), high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), trauma to the pancreas, and some drugs or toxins. Obesity linked to a high fat and low carbohydrate diet has also been shown to be a risk factor for this inflammation disorder.
Even without the presence of a high fat diet, a cat can have an occurrence of pancreatic inflammation after eating a large amount of fatty foods. This tends to occur around the holidays, when animals are given table scraps that are not normally a part of their diets.
One other cause, rare because of its geographical probability, is scorpion stings. The venom from a scorpion can cause the pancreas to react, leading to inflammation.
Although pancreatitis can occur in any animal breed, it has been found to occur more frequently with cats, specifically the Siamese cat. Inflammation of the pancreas is also more common in females than in males, and more common in elderly cats.
Your veterinarian will check for the presence of gallstones, and for a condition referred to as reflux. A fill blood work up will be ordered to see if there are any nutrient imbalances, and X-ray imaging will be used to look for evidence of any blunt damage to the pancreas. Pancreatic and liver enzymes will be measured to analyze for increases of either in the bloodstream. Insulin will me measured to check for normal levels, since inflammation can cause insulin producing cells in the pancreas to be damaged, possibly leading to diabetes.
In some cases, an ultrasound will be performed to look for mass tissue growths, cysts, or abscesses in the body. A needle biopsy may also be taken along with the ultrasound.
Inflammation of the pancreas can often be treated in your veterinarian's office and will include fluid therapy, substances to help move blood flow in the veins and arteries (colloids), electrolyte supplements, and potassium supplements, as potassium levels often drop when the cat is experiencing this medical condition. If the inflammation is being caused by a medication your pet is taking, the medication will be withdrawn immediately.
It is important to restrict your cat’s activity level following any treatment to allow for healing. Food and fluids will be stopped for a few days to give the pancreas time to rest, and to slow the production of digestive enzymes. Your veterinarian may need to prescribe fluid therapy during this time to prevent dehydration.
If vomiting is persistent, drugs will be prescribed to help control it, and if your pet is experiencing severe pain, pain relievers can be given. (Pain medication should only be given with supervision from your veterinarian.) It may also be necessary to give your pet antibiotics as a preventive against infection. In some serious cases, surgery will be used to remove any blockage that is causing the inflammation, to remove large accumulations of fluid, or to remove severely damaged tissue.
When food is resumed, bland, low fat, high carbohydrate, easily digestible food will be recommended until the condition has cleared thoroughly. If the pancreatitis was severe, or is chronic (recurring), this food plan may need to be fixed permanently to protect your cat’s pancreas and internal organs.
Living and Management
Diets that are high in fats should be limited long-term, as well as diets that are high in proteins. Hydration is one of the biggest concerns and should be monitored within 24 hours of therapy, and then until the cat has fully recovered. Your veterinarian will also want to perform occasional in office examinations to ensure that progress is being made towards healing.
While these preventative measures will not ensure that your cat does not develop this inflammation, they may help to avoid the medical condition. These measures include:
- A reduction in the cat's weight (if it is overweight), and proper on-going weight management
- Avoidance of high-fat diets
- Keeping your cat as close to its ideal weight as possible
- Avoidance of drugs that may increase inflammation
A gland that aids in both digestive and insulin functions
A medical condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed
A medical condition in which there is a great deal of fat in the blood
The whole system involved in digestion from mouth to anus
A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
A hormone created by the pancreas that helps to regulate the flow of glucose