Mismothering in Female Dogs
Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn pups or the lack of maternal behavior when dealing with the mother's own young. (Other types of maternal behavior problem also exist, but they are still poorly defined.)
Though no genetic component has yet been attributed to these behavioral problems,the fact that Jack Russell terriers seem to be predisposed to the behavior indicate the possibility of a genetic component.
Symptoms and Types
Inadequate Maternal Behavior
- Abandons her own newborn pups (most common after caesarean section)
- Does not allow her offspring to nurse
- Insufficient cleaning of the young
- Inadequate retrieval of the young
- Failure to stimulate elimination
- Attacking and/or killing some or all of the newborn, especially if it has a different odor or appearance
- If disturbed by people or other animals, may redirect her aggression to her young
Excessive Maternal Behavior
- Un-bred mother may attempt to nurse unfamiliar pups
- Guarding of inanimate objects such as stuffed animals
- An increase in the size of mammary glands
The lack of maternal behavior shown by mothers with newborn pups, especially after caesarean section, has been attributed to gradual decrease in oxytocin, which is important during the sensitive period of acceptance of dam’s own neonates. Conversely, when there is an absence of newborns, excessive maternal behavior is due to the increased progesterone levels resulting from estrus in un-bred bitches, followed by an immediate and sharp decline in the progesterone levels.
You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to the veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination as well as a biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and complete blood count -- though the results are usually normal unless a disease is present.
Medical treatment may be required in some females, but proper care and management typically help in resolving such behavioral problems. Spaying should be delayed for at least four months after estrus to avoid abnormal behavior. That being said, spaying has been suggested to help in preventing future excessive maternal behavior.
Living and Management
In case of lack of maternal behavior the bitch should be fed freely to encourage lactation and meet her energy demands. Nursing females should also be placed in quiet, comfortable, and dark area, where she will not be disturbed by other people and animals. If the bitch is seen biting her neonates, she may require a muzzle or may need to be removed from the room. If aggression persists, the separation can be done for several weeks until aggression subsides.
Conversely, in case of excessive maternal behavior, the bitch should be separated from the stolen puppies and their actual mother. Moreover, the mothered objects like stuffed animals should be removed from the environment of the bitch. In these females, food intake should be restricted for few days to prevent lactation.
Many experts recommend against breeding bitches with a history of maternal behavioral problems, as these problems are shown in subsequent pregnancies.
A type of hormone that is released during parturition that aids in the contraction of the uterus and causes milk to be released
A hormone that is created at the time of pregnancy
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
The term for an animal’s young
The formation and secretion of milk and the processes involved
Any female animal that has given birth.
The time period in which a female is receptive to male attention
A female dog that has not been spayed.
The term for the nostrils and muscles in the upper and lower lips of an animal; may also be used to describe a type of tool used to keep an animal from biting