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Ah, the joys of the outdoors. Swimming, hiking, and Frisbee in the park — all reasons to look forward to going outside. But fleas? Not so much. Not only are these blood-sucking parasites unsightly and creepy, they can also cause some serious diseases. So, how can you keep your dog flea-free year-round? Here are a few ideas to consider…
While spot-on flea medications seem like they would only work on the spot they are applied to, they are actually very effective at covering the dog’s entire body. The drops work by a process of translocation, by which the medication is spread over the body by way of the oil glands. They are not affected by bathing, swimming, or rain, and will kill and repel fleas for several weeks before reapplication. They may also work to interrupt the flea life cycle while it is in progress. Before choosing a particular spot-on product, read the label and choose one that is appropriate for your dog’s age and size.
If you need help controlling a serious flea infestation, using oral medications along with spot-on treatments will help. Once a month flea control pills (in small tablet form) work to disrupt the life cycle of fleas, but do not kill adult fleas on contact. Some are made to be easy to administer, even for dogs that are difficult to medicate, with flavor added to make them more like treats so they are accepted gladly — or at least easier to hide in your dog’s food.
Bathing your dog with a special medicated shampoo that kills fleas on contact can be an inexpensive (though labor-intensive) method of protecting your dog during flea season, or year-round. You will need to repeat the process more often, about every two weeks, as the effective ingredients in these flea shampoos won’t last as long as a spot-on or oral medication.
Flea collars are another option, though their effectiveness may depend on the invasiveness of the fleas in your environment and the contact the flea collar makes with your dog's skin (in order to transfer the chemicals). Cut off any excess length of collar to prevent your dog from chewing on it, and watch for signs of discomfort (e.g., excessive scratching) in case an allergic reaction to the collar occurs. Before choosing a particular flea collar, read the label and choose one that is appropriate for your dog’s age and size.
A flea dip is a concentrated chemical that needs to be diluted in water and applied to the dog’s fur with a sponge, or poured over the back. This is not like a shampoo bath, so you will not rinse your dog off after applying the dip product. These chemical products can be very potent, ask your veterinarian if a flea dip is right for your dog.Misuse can lead to toxic reactions, in both pets and in the people treating them, so they are generally only used for severe infestations, and only infrequently.
Flea powders and sprays are relatively inexpensive methods of repelling fleas. Be cautious when applying these products, as the spray or fine powder can be irritating to the mouth and lungs if breathed in (for both dogs and humans). Also be sure to use caution around the eyes, nose, and mouth. As these products will wear off the skin faster than a spot-on treatment, you will need to reapply them more often. Always read labels carefully before using flea powders or sprays.
For any level of flea infestation, light or severe, you will need to do a thorough house cleaning, and you will need to clean daily until the situation has been brought under control. Vacuum in every corner and along the baseboards, and throw out the vacuum bag when you are finished. Wash all of your dog’s bedding and toys with warm soapy water and vacuum the car too -- even if you do not take your dog into your car, since you may be carrying fleas on your shoes or pant-cuffs. Removing the majority of flea eggs and larvae present will help reduce the population of adults hatching in your home.
To further treat your home, you can use sprays and/or foggers that will kill the adult fleas, as well as the larvae and eggs as they hatch. These products are available at your veterinarian’s office or pet supply store. Care must be taken when using flea spray and foggers, as they can be toxic to fish, birds, cats and children. Read labels carefully and ask for advice from your veterinarian before attempting to use these products. In the face of a severe infestation, you may want to hire a professional exterminator to spray the house properly.
You can purchase ready-made "flea traps" from your local hardware store, or you can make your own. Sticky pads (some with lights attached) are laid on the floor, where the fleas become attached to the sheet while jumping around. This will help eliminate some of the adult fleas from the environment, but not the eggs or larvae. A home-made light trap is made by setting a small dish of soapy water on the ground near a light source at night (such as a small lamp or night light). Fleas are attracted to the warmth and light and will jump into the water, where they will drown.
Keeping your lawn, bushes, and trees consistently trimmed back will help reduce the population of fleas in your backyard. If you still have a problem, consider using the various yard sprays or granular treatments that are available from your veterinarian, pet store, or local garden center. Or, you might consider hiring a pest control service for regular yard treatments. Just be careful when using these products, as they can be harmful to pets, fish, and humans.
For light infestations, a simple lukewarm bath will often take care of the fleas that are on the body. The water and soap are enough to get rid of the fleas, and if used along with a flea comb, the situation can be brought under control with little fuss. Dogs in particular are often agreeable to bathing in the yard with a hose, which can make the chore a bit easier. This must be followed up by a thorough house cleaning and another method of repelling the fleas (see above solutions), otherwise the fleas that are hiding in the floor and furniture will jump back onto your dog.