Cat and Dog Skin Problems
By T. J. Dunn, Jr., DVM
Does your dog (or cat) have skin problems? Is it continually scratching, biting and licking at itself….and you don’t know why? Well, take comfort, you are not alone.
There are really six main reasons why dogs and cats will itch and scratch. The bottom line is... don't let them suffer! There IS a diagnosis to be made and then you and your veterinarian will be better able to select the proper treatment plan.
Itching and scratching in dogs: One of the most common calls made to any animal hospital in America goes something like this: "Doctor, I’ve got to get this dog in right away. He’s driving us nuts. All he does is itch and scratch, bite and lick and he’s keeping us up all night!"
My thought is that if the pet’s caretakers are being driven “nuts” by the dog’s scratching and licking, how awful must the poor dog feel?
This kind of call to the veterinarian refers to a fairly serious case of pruritus. In reality there is a wide spectrum of causes and severity of itching and scratching in dogs with skin and coat trouble. Some dogs can spend hours romping through fields, digging holes, and rolling in the grass and still have no after-effects at all. Others, kept indoors and fed an excellent diet, may have severe skin disorders.
Let’s see if we can make some sense of this complicated and aggravating situation and try to answer the question "Why does my dog itch-and-scratch-bite-and-lick?"
There are six main categories of dermatitis we veterinarians have to consider whenever a cat or dog skin problem -- or "skin case" -- is presented. Most skin and coat abnormalities can be defined by or placed in one of these categories:
Keeping in mind that there are entire textbooks written about these categories, you might understand why veterinarians often take a deep breath before entering the exam room wherein awaits a patient with a "skin problem." Let’s look at each category, starting with the simplest (Environmental Dermatitis) and finishing with the most challenging (Neurogenic Dermatitis).
1. Environmental Dermatitis
Patients in this category are physically and nutritionally normal, but present with signs of itching and scratching, hair loss and skin irritation. By careful discourse with the owner regarding diet, activity, medical history and environment, and by performing a thorough physical exam, the veterinarian can rule out the other categories of dermatitis. Through the analysis of the patient’s history, the veterinarian will discover that the patient spends time swimming or excavating gopher holes or romping through fields where thistles seem prevalent.
Many dogs are very sensitive to simple lawn grasses. And by matching what is visible on the patient’s skin with a probable environmental irritant -- the cause of the cat or dog's skin problem can be determined and corrective measures taken.
An example is Moist Eczema, often called a "Hot Spot". These skin lesions often occur as a result of moisture on the skin surface from rain, pond or lake water. Minute scratches on the skin from, for example, a clipper blade, may trigger other cases. Especially in dense coated dogs or dogs where there is an accumulation of mats or shedding hair, moisture on the skin may remain long enough to allow superficial bacteria to reproduce (sort of like an organic soup!) and create an infection.
Some cases of Moist Eczema will spread very rapidly and require rather aggressive therapy to correct. Contact with plastics can also cause environmental dermatitis.
2. Nutritional Dermatitis
When food is the issue, correction of these cases of dog and cat itching and scratching should be a "no brainer," but even today, many veterinarians and pet owners really believe the "Complete and Balanced" statement on pet food labels.
Unfortunately, many dogs and cats live their entire lives in less than optimum health because their caretaker feeds the least expensive food they can find … and feels secure in doing so because of that "Complete and Balanced" statement.
In my thirty-five years of practice, I have seen hundreds of dogs and cats whose lives changed dramatically, and where the pet’s caretakers were shocked and surprised at the remarkable difference in their pets, by the simple act of providing the pet with a high quality, meat-based diet.
You can read more on dog and cat food protein and overall pet nutrition for some common sense information about sound feeding principles.
Without proper nourishment skin problems in dogs and cats is just one of the possible reactions; the animal's entire body, not just its skin and coat, will be continuously in a state of stress. High quality meat-based dog foods seldom, if ever, create the kind of skin and coat irritation in most animals.
If you feed dry commercial dog food, be certain that the first ingredient listed is meat such as beef, poultry, lamb or fish. Specialized diets are widely available that are generally better than others in several key categories:
Quality Dog Food
* All Natural Dog Food - Shop Natural Dog Food
* Grain Free Dog Food - Shop Grain Free Dog Food
* Organic Dog Food - Shop Organic Dog Food
* Veterinary Prescription Diet Dog Food - Shop Veterinary Prescription Diet Dog Food
Quality Cat Food
* All Natural Cat Food - Shop All Natural Cat Food
* Grain Free Cat Food - Shop Grain Free Cat Food
* Organic Cat Food - Shop Organic Cat Food
* Veterinary Prescription Diet Cat Food - Shop Veterinary Prescription Diet Cat Food
Will supplements help? Absolutely! But if the diet is a high quality, meat-based brand, the need for supplements is much less critical. It has been my experience that supplements such as Omega Fatty Acids, Vitamins and table scraps will always help a dog that is eating a generic, commercial dry dog food; and on occasion, supplements may even show positive benefits in a dog eating a high quality diet.
Many types of cat or dog skin problems are avoided if the animal consumes an optimum diet. In some cases, adding a supplement, such as an omega fatty acid supplement, is the key factor in avoiding repeated episodes of hot spots and other skin problems.
If your dog or cat seems to lack good coat and skin health, consider upgrading the diet to a meat-based ingredient formula and adding a supplement.
A medical condition in which the ear becomes inflamed
The ability to create a disease where a disease might not normally be found, usually due to an ill timed or unlikely weakness
Any type of arachnid excluding ticks
Any substance that is used to make an animal or person healthier
A bundle of fibers that are used in the process of sending impulses through the body
Something that causes itching
A type of fungus that produces buds
Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ
Something that is artificially created
The term for a disease of the skin caused by certain mites
The study of drugs and their nature and uses
Inside the cell
The study of skin
A professional who deals with studying the skin
A condition in which the skin becomes inflamed
Any substance or item that the body of an animal would regard as strange or unwanted; a foreign disease or virus in the body (toxin, etc.)
The widening of something
A reaction to a certain pathogen that is out of the ordinary
A protein in the body that is designed to fight disease; antibodies are brought on by the presence of certain antigens in the system.
Denotes an animal that is still able to reproduce or is free of cuts and scrapes
To attack something or take it over, as in the way ticks can infest a dog
A wave that is transmitted through nerves and nervous tissue
A change in the way that tissue is constructed; a sore