Hi stranger! Signing up for MypetMD is easy, free and puts the most relevant content at your fingertips.

Get Instant Access To

  • 24/7 alerts for pet-related recalls

  • Your own library of articles, blogs, and favorite pet names

  • Tools designed to keep your pets happy and healthy

or Connect with Facebook

By joining petMD, you agree to the Privacy Policy.

PetMD Seal

Brain Tissue Inflammation and Death (Breed Specific) in Dogs


Breed Specific Necrotizing Encephalitis in Dogs


Necrotizing encephalitis is inflammation of the brain with concurrent necrosis (death) of brain tissue. It is seen only in a few breeds of dogs, including pugs, Yorkshire terriers, and Maltese. It is also occasionally seen in chihuahuas and shi-tzus. Symptoms vary in different breeds.


Symptoms and Types


Symptoms depend on the area of the brain that is affected, but may include:


  • Abnormal behavior
  • Seizures
  • Circling
  • Blindness




The exact cause for this condition is unknown.




You will need to give your veterinarian a detailed medical history, including a background of the symptoms, time of onset, and the frequency of the symptoms present. After taking a history, your veterinarian will examine your dog in detail. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. The laboratory tests are usually within normal ranges. Radiographic studies, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography scan (CT-scan) also typically give non-specific results.



A more conclusive diagnosis may be made using a sample taken from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the protective and nourishing fluid that circulate around the brain and spinal cord. The sample will be sent to laboratory for a further evaluation. The results of the CSF testing may reveal an increase in the leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs) count, an abnormal condition referred to as pleocytosis. The laboratory tests may also indicate inflammation, infection, or the possible presence of a tumor. However, a brain biopsy (taking a small sample of brain tissue for analysis) is the only way to conclusively determine the cause for the brain disturbance.



Related Articles

Spinal Cord Disease in Dogs

Degenerative myelopathy is the general medical term that refers to the disease of the dog's spinal cord or bone marrow. The condition does not...

Brain and Spinal Cord Inflammation (Meningoencephalomyelitis, Eosinophilic) in Dogs

Eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis is a condition that causes the inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and their membranes due to abnormally...

Brain Inflammation in Dogs

The term “encephalitis” refers to an inflammation of the brain. However, it also may be accompanied by the inflammation of spinal cord (myelitis)and/or...

Shaker Syndrome in Dogs

Shaker syndrome is a disorder which causes a dog's entire body to shake.