On occasion, a dog's front leg continues to grow well after the other has stopped, resulting in one normal-sized leg and another irregularly-sized leg. This is commonly referred to as an antebrachial growth deformity. When this occurs the shorter leg's bone may twist and bow, or it overgrows at the elbow. In either case, the result is misalignment of the bones. The tendency of a joint to stop growing seems to be a recessive trait in Skye Terriers. There is also the possibility of elbow joint misalignment in basset hounds and Lhasa Apsos.
Another front leg deformity which commonly occurs is called elbow dysplasia. It occurs when the point of the elbow and the muscular structure do not develop normally, and is most commonly seen in large and giant-breed dogs, especially Bernese Mountain Dogs, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, and Rottweilers. Males are also more susceptible to the condition. This deformity becomes apparent at the fifth to the eighth month and is usually in both elbows.
Longer-limbed dogs are more likely to suffer deformities of the longer bones, whereas shorter-limbed dogs tend to develop more joint problems. The age of the animal when the deformity occurs will also affect the severity of the condition.
There are many potential causes for front leg deformities in dogs; some of the more common ones include:
Your veterinarian will order X-rays of the entire limb, including the elbow, to compare the lengths of the bones, and to determine whether the muscles in the elbow are attached. Other signs the veterinarian may look for in the X-rays to confirm antebrachial growth deformities are bone enlargement, inflammation of the entire bone structure, and flexor muscle spasms.
A condition in which growth and development are not up to normal standards
Anything that looks different from what is considered to be normal and healthy for that species