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Secondary hyperparathyroidism refers to the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) due to chronic kidney failure. More specifically, the cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism is absolute or relative lack of calcitriol production -- a form of vitamin D that stimulates the absorption of calcium in the intestines, calcium resorption in bone, and promotes the effectiveness of the parathyroid hormone in aiding bone resorption. Low concentrations of calcium also play a role in increased levels of PTH in blood.
The majority of symptoms relate to the underlying cause of chronic kidney failure. In some patients with chronic kidney disease, bone resorption starts around the teeth and jaw, causing a loosening of the teeth and a softening of the lower jaw, a condition known in the medical community as “rubber jaw.”
Any underlying disease that causes chronic kidney failure.
You will need to give a detailed history of your dog’s health, the onset and nature of the symptoms, and possible incidents that might have led to this condition. Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam to evaluate all of the body systems.
Blood testing and biochemical profiles may reveal azotemia, an accumulation of toxic amounts of nitrogenous waste products (urea) in the blood, waste products that are usually excreted in the urine and voided from the body. This condition is also referred to as uremia. There may also be abnormally higher levels of the phosphate in the blood and abnormally low levels of the calcium in the blood. For definitive diagnosis, your veterinarian will perform measurements of serum PTH concentrations. Moreover, low to normal concentrations of calcium in the blood will help in confirming a diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bone X-rays are also helpful in determining bone density, especially around the teeth.
Waste in the blood; may also be referred to as uremic poisoning.
The product of protein being metabolized; can be found in blood or urine.
a) Mass per volume b) The number of animals in a given area
The condition of having urea and other nitrogenous elements in an animal's blood.
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance