Hi stranger! Signing up for MypetMD is easy, free and puts the most relevant content at your fingertips.

Get Instant Access To

  • 24/7 alerts for pet-related recalls

  • Your own library of articles, blogs, and favorite pet names

  • Tools designed to keep your pets happy and healthy



or Connect with Facebook

By joining petMD, you agree to the Privacy Policy.

PetMD Seal

Overproduction of White Blood Cells in the Bone Marrow in Dogs

ADVERTISEMENT

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in Dogs

 

Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a disorder of unknown cause, characterized by persistent eosinophilia -- sustained overproduction of eosinophils (white blood cells of the immune system) in the bone marrow. However, its suspected cause is a link to a severe reaction to an unidentified antigen, or impairment of the immune response and control of eosinophil production. This is a multi-system syndrome, with invasion of the tissues by eosinophils and subsequent organ damage and dysfunction. It frequently has a fatal outcome.

 

Organ damage can result from the effects of eosinophil granule products and eosinophil-derived cytokines, a category of regulatory proteins that are released by cells in the immune system into the tissues. Common sites of infiltration include the gastrointestinal tract (especially the intestine and liver), spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and lymph nodes (especially those in the abdominal area).

 

Less common sites of infiltration include the skin, kidney, heart, thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. This condition is rare in dogs, but Rottweilers may be predisposed.

 

Symptoms

 

  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite (anorexia)
  • Intermittent vomiting and diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Emaciation
  • Enlargement of the liver and spleen
  • Thickened (diffuse or segmental) intestine that is non-painful
  • Abdominal masses
  • Itching and seizures (less frequently)
  • Mesenteric and possibly peripheral lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes in the abdominal region or other areas of the body)
  • Mass lesions caused by eosinophilic granulomatous (inflamed masses of tissue) involving the lymph nodes and/or organs

 

Causes

 

The cause of hypereosinophilic syndrome is unknown. However, it is believed to be cause by a severe reaction to an underlying, as yet unidentifiable antigenic stimulus that may be composed of two different strains of a virus.

 

Diagnosis

 

The veterinary examination will consist of standard laboratory work, including a complete blood profile, chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health and onset of symptoms. Additional diagnostics will include a bone marrow aspiration and/or core biopsy of the cells, and a biopsy of the affected organ or mass. It is typical for the blood test results to show increased amounts of multiple types of white blood cells, most notably leukocytosis (leukocyte), basophilia (basophil), and eosinophilia (eosinophil). The results of the blood tests may also show anemic conditions, and the biochemical profile may show abnormalities in the case of organ dysfunction.

 

Diagnostic imaging can be helpful in determining the extent of organ damage as well. Radiographic contrast, which uses an injection of a radiocontrasting agent into the area to be viewed, may be used to improve visibility of the internal organs. These X-rays may show thickened intestines and abnormalities in the lining of the intestines. Other findings may be reactive hyperplasia (abnormal enlargement) of the lymph nodes due to eosinophil infiltration, and fibrosis (excess fibrous connective tissue) and thrombosis (coagulation in the arteries) surrounding the heart.

 

 

Related Articles

Inflammation of Body Blood Vessels in Dogs
Systemic vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels that is usually the result...
READ MORE
Skin and Eye Inflammation Due to Autoimmune ...
Your dog's immune system produces chemicals called antibodies to protect its body...
READ MORE
  • Lifetime Credits:
  • Today's Credits:
Hurry Before All Seats are Taken!
Enroll
Be an A++ Pet Parent! Take fun & free courses to earn badges & certifications. Choose a course»
Around the Web
MORE FROM PETMD.COM