By T. J. Dunn, Jr., DVM
New medications are constantly being made available for our pets to help improve the safety and efficacy of veterinary medicine. But do you really know what goes on in the animal hospital's pharmacy?
It's important to first note that pet medications and prescriptions need to be used with an understanding of their effects and side effects. Animal hospital pharmacies should only use fresh, quality pet medications -- and then used only as directed. Additionally, not all medications or drugs are safe and/or effective for every individual dog (or cat) taking that substance.
Here's an example from human medicine: Aspirin is widely available without a prescription and billions of aspirin tablets are consumed worldwide every year. On rare occasions someone will have a bad reaction from taking aspirin. Does that mean that aspirin is "bad" and that it shouldn’t be available to anyone? Does it mean that no one should ever take an aspirin just because a few people shouldn't?
Likewise with pet medications. We need to be vigilant of undesirable side effects and should keep in touch with the dog's (or cat's) veterinarian when any questions arise regarding pet medications and their use.
Another important step in understanding an animal hospital pharmacy and its medication use is understanding the common terms used for medication.
Veterinarians frequently get calls about "expired" medications. The expiration date indicates the date in which the product should stop being sold or dispensed by the pharmacy. It does NOT mean that the product becomes ineffective or useless on that date.
For example, if you purchased a box of flea medication with nine tablets in it on January first, and you see an expiration date on the box of April of that year, your impression might be that you have only four useful tablets in the box of nine. However, what the drug companies must do is set the expiration date well in advance of the time when any effectiveness might drop off in order to take into account the time it takes the consumer to use the medication.
Essentially, the expiration date takes into account the time it will take the purchaser to use up the medication after it is purchased.
A side effect is any response that is not the desired effect of a drug or medication. For example, if an antihistamine is prescribed in order to decrease nasal congestion due to an allergy and the patient also experiences a sluggish and sleepy mood as well, the drowsiness is considered to be a side effect.
Since most dogs (and cats) don’t drive or operate heavy machinery, the side effect of sleepiness may not be an important consideration. In fact, the side effect of the antihistamine might even be good. Maybe an antihistamine would be a good choice to use prior to a trip where the dog (or cat) would benefit from being slightly sleepy instead of barking or yeowling for four hours straight!
So, side effects are conditions other than the one intended -- but remember, side effects can be good, bad, or inconsequential.
Take an ordinary raisin. Cut it up into 1,000 equal parts. Each little part will weigh about 1 milligram. There are 464,000 milligrams in a pound. The fact that most drugs are measured in milligrams should alert you to the fact that sometimes very tiny amounts of a substance can be very powerful. Label instructions should be followed very faithfully.
The introduction of an animal to an organism in order to create a slight disease to induce immunity
The extent to which a drug is effective
The amount of pressure applied by the blood on the arteries.