Hypoxemia Due to Aspiration of Water in Cats
There are four phases in a typical drowning: breath-holding and swimming motion; water aspiration, choking, and struggling for air; vomiting; and cessation of movement followed by death. The mammalian diving reflex may occur, leading to a slowed heart rate, a halt in breathing, and blood circulation limited only to the essential organs of the body. Large volumes of water are not typically aspirated at this stage.
Near-drowning is determined by an event that involves prolonged submersion in water, followed by survival for at least 24 hours afterward. Following submersion, typical symptoms include elevated carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream, stimulated respiration, and subsequent aspiration of water into the lungs. In rare cases, hyperventilation prior to submersion, or laryngospasm (spasmodic closing of the larynx) may prevent aspiration of water, an involuntary reaction that can lead to a condition called dry drowning.
Fresh water aspiration leads to a collapse of respiratory cells with possible infectious pneumonia. Hypertonic seawater aspiration leads to a diffusion of water entering the lungs and into the alveoli (the air cells of the lungs). Since the cat cannot obtain enough oxygen, oxygen levels in the blood drop and the blood becomes acidotic (abnormal increase in acidity).
Submersion time, temperature of the water, and the type of water the cat was submerged in (whether the water is fresh, salt, or chemical) will significantly affect the development of organ damage.
Symptoms and Types
- Bluish skin and gums
- Coughing with clear to frothy red sputum (spit-up)
- Cessation of breathing
- Difficulty breathing
- Crackling sound from the chest
- Semi-conscious and dazed to comatose
- Increased or decreased heart rate
- Heart failure
- Owner negligence
- Inadequate safety precautions
- Cat is in or near water at the time of a seizure
- Following head trauma
- Rapid drop in blood sugar, abnormal heart beat rhythm, or fainting episode while in body of water
Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical exam on your cat. Standard laboratory tests will include a blood chemical profile, a complete blood count, a urinalysis and an electrolyte panel.
Chest X-rays may show aspiration pneumonia or fluid in the lungs one to two days after the near-drowning. Foreign body inhalation may produce segmental lung collapse. Pulmonary injury progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is possible.
An endotracheal or transtracheal wash, followed by a cytologic evaluation and culture with sensitivities is indicated. Electrocardiographic monitoring examine the electrical currents in the heart muscles may be performed to assess heart damage. Your veterinarian will also want to determine the auditory evoked response (BAER) for hearing loss assessment. Cervical X-rays, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and brain stem may be helpful in select cases.
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
The administration of something through a route other than the normal route, which is through the gastro intestinal tract
The return of food into the oral cavity after it has been swallowed
The term used for phlegm that is ejected from the mouth; it is secreted in the lower respiratory tract
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
The term for the nostrils and muscles in the upper and lower lips of an animal; may also be used to describe a type of tool used to keep an animal from biting
An involuntary action in which the muscles contract; caused by a problem with the brain.
The voice box; this is one part of the respiratory system
The part of the brain that contains the medulla oblongata and other vital portions of the brain.
Anything pertaining to what can be heard; hearing.
Movement of material from an area highly concentrated to an area where there is a lower concentration
High levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
Term used to imply that a situation or condition is more severe than usual; also used to refer to a disease having run a short course or come on suddenly.