When tooth enamel -- the outer coating of the tooth -- is allowed to develop normally it has a smooth and white appearance. Abnormal environmental or physical conditions can interfere with the development of tooth enamel, causing it to take on a discolored, pitted or otherwise unusual appearance.
Bodily influences, like a fever over an extended period of time, may cause pitting and discolored enamel surfaces. Local influences, like injury (even from baby tooth extraction) over a short period of time can cause specific patterns or bands to appear on the developing teeth. These types of traumas can result in less than normal deposits of enamel, medically termed hypocalcification. The lack of sufficient enamel may cause the teeth to be more sensitive, with exposed dentin (which is normally hidden underneath the enamel), and occasionally fractures of severely compromised teeth. The teeth usually remain fully functional.
Discolored teeth may be found by your veterinarian during a routine physical exam, which normally includes a complete oral exam. Intraoral radiographs (X-rays) can then be taken by your veterinarian to determine if the roots of the teeth are still alive.
A low level of calcium in the blood
A medical condition in which the gums become inflamed
The white substance over the crown of teeth
The tissue that holds the tooth in place in the mouth