Cryptococcus is a yeastlike fungus that is generally associated with tropical environments, such as those in Australia and Africa. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gatti has been directly associated with the eucalyptus tree in Australia, but this fungus, as well as the Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, also grows in bird droppings and decaying vegetation, and can be found worldwide, including in some areas of southern California and Canada.
Cryptococcosis, the diseased condition that results from internalization of this fungus, is a localized or systemic fungal infection caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans. The Cryptococcus fungus is contracted through the nasal passages, and from there passes into the brain, eyes, lungs, and other tissues. Lung infection and central nervous system malfunction leading to meningitis are the most common causes of Cryptococcosis fatality. Cats in the United States are seven to ten times more likely to contract the fungus than dogs are.
Symptoms will vary, and will depend greatly on the organ systems affected by the fungus. However, your cat may have a history of problems for weeks or months before the condition is full-blown. It may be especially sluggish, and although it occurs in less than 50 percent of afflicted animals, your cat may also have a mild fever throughout this time. Other symptoms specific to cats include:
Cryptococcus spores are present in bird feces and in the surrounding soil where bird droppings may be found. This condition is contracted when spores from the Cryptococcus fungus are inhaled through the nasal passages. Occasionally, these organisms may reach the terminal airways, although it is unlikely. The fungus can also infect the stomach and the intestines, entering through the gastrointestinal tract. The disease is not transmittable to humans or other animals, nor is it contagious.
Your veterinarian will be making a diagnosis based on findings from the following tests:
A medical condition in which the meninges becomes inflamed
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ
Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes
The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
The feces of an animal
Any substance or item that the body of an animal would regard as strange or unwanted; a foreign disease or virus in the body (toxin, etc.)
An increase in the number of bad white blood cells