Atrioventricular Valvular Stenosis in Cats
There are four chambers in the heart. The top two chambers of the heart are the atria, and the bottom two chambers of the heart are the ventricles. The valves that communicate between the atria and ventricles are the atrioventricular valves. The mitral valve communicates between the left atrium and left ventricle, and the tricuspid valve communicates between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Abnormalities in the mitral valve, on the left, affect blood flow to the lungs. The tricuspid valve, on the right side of the heart, is responsible for blood flow to the body. Abnormalities seen here result in poor blood flow throughout the body.
Stenosis (narrowing) of these valves can occur due to the valves being malformed from birth, bacterial heart muscle infection, cancer of the heart, or hyptertrophic cardiomyopathy (a disease often seen in cats suffering from a thyroid tumor). Stenosis of these valves causes the valves to become leaky, increasing the diastolic pressure gradient between the atrium and the ventricle (the pressure gradient is the period in which the heart's chambers dilate and fill with blood – diastole of the ventricles follows diastole of the atria).
Mitral valve narrowing can cause high blood pressure in the lungs, trouble breathing, and coughing. Mitral valve stenosis is more commonly seen more in Siamese breeds.
Tricuspid valve stenosis can lead to swelling of the legs and paws, and an enlarged liver may be seen on radiographis images.
Both mitral and tricuspid valve stenosis can lead to congestive heart failure (CHF).
Symptoms and Types
- Exercise intolerance
- Fainting (syncope)
- Trouble breathing
- Coughing (mitral valve narrowing)
- Pale or bluish skin color (cyanosis)
- Fluid in the abdomen, swelling (tricuspid valve stenosis)
- Stunted growth
- Spitting up blood
There are a variety of causes that narrow a cat's heart valves, much of it depending on the type of valve stenosis. Mitral valve stenosis, for example, is congenital and commonly affects Siamese. Tricuspid valve stenosis, meanwhile, is also congenital in nature and may be due to cancer of the heart and bacterial infection of the heart muscle. Moreover, both of these are usually diagnossed at an early age.
You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your cat's health and onset of symptoms, including any information you have on your cat's family line. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. The results of these tests typically return normal levels. Based on the apparent symptoms and the results of the initial physical exam, your veterinarian should be able to narrow the cause down to which type of heart valve disease is present. This will need to be confirmed with further testing.
For diagnostic purposes, your veterinarian will need to view the heart using imaging tools. X-rays can help your veterinarian to determine if there is enlargement of the valves or atrium on either side of the heart, and echocardiography will show atrial dilation, and possibly abnormal flow of the blood through the heart. Electrocardiograph readings can also help your doctor to determine if the heart's electrical functioning is being affected. An abnormal rhythm, and the exact measurement of the abnormality can be a great help in determining which side of the heart is most affected.
Your doctor may also use a diagnostic method called angiography, which utilizes X-ray imaging along with a radio-opaque contrasting agent (dye) that is injected into the blood vessels. This dye makes it possible to visualize the vessels internally and evaluate the flow of blood through the heart and surrounding vessels.
In rare instances, a veterinarian may also want to check for pressure disparities within the heart (intracardial) and within the vessels (intravascular) by catheterizing it, a process called cardiac catheterization. This method can also be used for injection of contrasting agents, to take a sample for biopsy, if cancer is suspected, and to assess the severity of the disease.
The act of making an opening narrower.
The fold of membrane found between the left atrium and left ventricle
Fainting; the respiratory and circulatory systems are suspended for a time
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
a) A cavity in certain animals b) Term refers to a rear chamber in the heart or a cavity in the brain
A record of the activity of the myocardium
The widening of something
The amount of pressure applied by the blood on the arteries.
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
The dilation of the ventricles of the heart
To make something wider
The superior chamber in an animal's heart.
A procedure that is used to evaluate the health and structures of the heart