Digital Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Cats
Cats can be afflicted with several types of skin tumors, even on their feet and toes. One type of tumor that can affect the toes is a squamous cell carcinoma. A squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be described as a malignant and particularly invasive tumor that takes hold in the scale like cells of the epithelium – the tissue that covers the body or lines the cavities of the body. These scale like tissue cells are called the squamous.
Carcinoma is, by definition, an especially malignant and persistent form of cancer, often returning after is has been excised from the body and metastasizing to other organs and locations on the body. This particular type of carcinoma is a slow moving one, and is typically caught before it has had a chance to spread.
However, there is usually a squamous cell carcinoma somewhere else on the skin that spreads to the toes in this case, and more than one toe is usually affected. It may appear as a small nodule, a reddish colored skin plaque, or as a papule – small and blister like in appearance, but differentiated by its lack of fluid. The SCC does not retain its appearance as a solid mass. Over time it will grow, the tissue within the mass will die (necrotize), and the tumor will ulcerate. While this form of cancer can affect any breed of cat, it remains a rare type of foot cancer in cats.
Symptoms and Types
- Swollen toes or feet
- Limping or not wanting to move around
- Ulcers (sores) on several toes
- Bleeding ulcers on the toes
- Solid, raised mass of skin on the toe (i.e., nodule, papule)
- Sores or tumors on other parts of the body
- May be without other symptoms
Squamous cell carcinomas on the toe typically occur as the result of metastasis of other tumors that have spread from another location on the cat's body.
You will need to provide a thorough history of your cat's health leading up to the onset of symptoms. Be sure to describe any sores that have been apparent on other parts of the body, even if you suspect they were caused by injuries resulting from outdoor activity, or from scratching at the skin. During the examination, your veterinarian will look carefully for other sores or tumors on your cat's body. The lymph nodes will be carefully felt to determine if they are enlarged, an indication that the body is reacting to an infection or invasion. A sample of lymph fluid may be taken to test for cancerous cells. Your veterinarian will order complete blood count and biochemistry profile to make sure your cat's other organs are working normally and to determine whether the white blood cell count is higher than normal; again, an indication that the body is fighting an invasive disease or infection.
X-rays images of your cat's chest will allow your veterinarian to visually inspect the lungs for signs of any abnormalities, especially tumors. X-rays of your cat's foot will also be ordered to determine how deep the tumor is in the tissue and whether the tumor on the toe has spread to the bones in the foot. A biopsy will be taken of the tumors so that your doctor can diagnose the specific type of growth it is, whether carcinoma or a benign mass of tissue. If your cat has sores or tumors in other areas, your veterinarian will also order biopsies of these for analysis.
A small lump or mass of tissue
A lesion of the skin less than half a centimeter in diameter
Something that becomes worse or life threatening as it spreads
Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes
The process of removing tissue to examine it, usually for medical reasons.
A covering of cells that turns into the outermost layer of skin and covers the body
Not being able to cause harm; the opposite of malignant.