Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are a group of disorders that result from the abnormal secretions of a hormone or hormone-like product from a cancerous tumor, or from the body's immune response to the tumor. These secretions affect the related tissues or organs (that is, the tissues and organs that are directly related to the affected organ) and generate an abnormal clinical response in cats dealing with cancer.
Such a response is not due to the invasiveness of the primary tumor, but is a secondary response to the abnormal secretions that are produced by the malignant or benign tumor. Symptoms depend on the response of the tissue or organ that is being targeted.
The symptoms will vary greatly depending on the type of tumor and on the organ system being affected by the abnormal secretions from such tumors. This type of disorder is most commonly related to a malignant tumor, but it can also result from a benign tumor that is secreting hormones. This latter type of tumor is rarer than the malignant type, in this instance. The most common types of PNS in cats will display as symptoms of anorexia – a complete loss of appetite, in a wasting away of the body, and in dermatological disorders.
Other symptoms depend on the type, location, and stage of tumor.
Tumor and/or presence of cancer in the body; hormone or hormone-like secretions released by the tumor. Some of the cancers that may be affecting the cat are squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma of the bile duct, pancreatic carcinoma, feline thymoma, or adenocarcinoma of the bronchia and alveoli (bronchoalveolar) in the lungs.
You will need to give a thorough history of your cat's health and onset of symptoms. The history you provide may give your veterinarian clues as to which organs are causing secondary symptoms. After taking a complete history, your veterinarian will conduct a detailed physical examination. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. These laboratory tests will return evidence of an immune system response to the cancer, and will also measure the effects the tumor secretions are having on various tissues and organs in the body.
Imaging studies will include radiographs of the thoracic (chest) cavity to rule out cancer in the lungs, and of the abdomen to confirm or rule out cancer of the organs situated therein. Ultrasound imaging will also be used to examine the structure of the internal organs and the adrenal glands. Biopsies of affected organs may be taken for further diagnosis, and if skin disorders are present, samples will betaken of the affected areas.
The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance
Pertaining to the chest
An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness
Something that becomes worse or life threatening as it spreads
A neoplasm that occurs as related to the thymus
Low amounts of glucose in the blood
Not being able to cause harm; the opposite of malignant.
The fluid created by the liver that helps food in the stomach to be digested.
A condition of the skin
The result of a malignant growth of the tissue of the epithelial gland.