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Leukemia (Chronic) in Cats

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Chronic Lymphocytic Cancer in Cats

 

Animals with abnormal and malignant lymphocytes in the blood are said to have a rare form of cancer called chronic lymphocytic leukemia. An integral component to the immune system, lymphocytes can affect many body systems when damaged.

 

Although rare, this form of leukemia affects both dogs and cats.

 

Symptoms

 

The symptoms for chronic lymphocytic leukemia are usually non-specific and may include:

 

  • Increased thirst (polydipsia) and consumption of water
  • Increased urination (polyuria)
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Lameness
  • Bruises

 

Causes

 

The following are suspected but unproven risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia:

 

  • Exposure to ionizing radiation
  • Cancer-causing viruses
  • Chemical agents

 

Diagnosis

 

You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and complete blood count (CBC). Blood testing may reveal anemia, abnormally low number of platelets (cells involved in blood clotting), and abnormal increase in number of lymphocytes in blood film observed under microscope. Your pet’s veterinarian will also conduct a bone marrow biopsy, which will provide a more detailed picture into the abnormalities in lymphocyte production.

 


Treatment

 

If the cat is displaying no symptoms, your veterinarian may recommend against treatment. Otherwise, chemotherapy remains the most popular form of treatment. A veterinary oncologist will be able to devise a treatment plan based on the cat and stage of the disease. In some patients, the spleen may need to be removed to avoid complications.

 

Living and Management

 

Regular monitoring and checkups are necessary to evaluate the cat's response to treatment and the progression of the disease. Moreover, regular blood, cardiac, and body system testing will be required if the cat is undergoing chemotherapy. This is because cats are more prone to infection when taking chemotherapeutic drugs. In case of serious complications, your veterinarian may reduce dosages or stop the treatment altogether.

 

Should you be required to administer the drugs, your veterinarian will instruct you as to the dosage and frequency. Do not ever increase or reduce the dosage of drugs without prior consulting with your veterinarian. These chemotherapeutic agents are just as toxic to humans, and should only be administered under strict guidelines. 

 

 

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