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Nutrition Nuggets
 
 
Your dog's nutrition is important for a healthy & happy life. petMD experts help you to know what to feed your dog, how much food to feed, and the differences in dog foods, so your dog gets optimum nutrition.
Nutrition Nuggets is the newest offshoot of petMD's Dog Nutrition Center. Each week Dr. Coates will use her expertise and wisdom to blog about the intricacies of dog nutrition.

Don't Think 'Good' or 'Bad' When It Comes to Fats: Part 1

March 29, 2013 / (2) comments

You are probably familiar with the concept of “good” and “bad” fats as it applies to human food. Fats are described as being “bad” when their inclusion in the diet is associated with abnormally high blood cholesterol levels and an increased risk of heart attack or stroke and “good” when this is not the case. Most bad fats are of animal origin (think butter and a marbled steak) while good fats are typically derived from plants (e.g., canola oil).

Does this concept of good and bad fats have relevance when it comes to feeding our dogs and cats? I’ve always told my clients that the answer is “no” because these species are at much lower risk for heart attacks and strokes caused by arthrosclerosis than are we. I just ran across an elegant explanation as to why this is true in an article entitled “Facilitative and functional fats in diets of cats and dogs” written by John Bauer, DVM, PhD, DACVN.

Although the concept of good and bad fats is appropriate for human health, dogs and cats are able to consume both types of fats in their diets without undue risk of coronary artery diseases, heart attacks, or strokes to which humans succumb. The simplified reason for this is that they have more good cholesterol (HDL) than bad cholesterol (LDL) to begin with, no matter what types of fat they consume. Second, in contrast to humans, dogs and cats typically are resistant to the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, even when they consume amounts of dietary fat that would typically turn human blood into sludge.

The fact that good cholesterol concentrations are higher than the concentrations of bad cholesterol is part of the mechanism that protects them from cardiac diseases that may affect humans. In addition, although saturated fats (and possibly trans fats) may cause modest increases in blood cholesterol concentrations in dogs, these dietary components do not appear to impart any increased risk of arterial diseases in dogs, which is in contrast to their effects in humans.

Thus, it is not advantageous to classify the various types of fats as good or bad in dogs or cats, although definitive data for cats (other than the fact that cats have high HDL cholesterol concentrations) have not been obtained. In view of these metabolic differences, it is proposed that the types of dietary fats for dogs and cats should be classified as functional or facilitative, rather than good or bad, respectively.

For more on classifying dietary fats as functional or facilitative, head on over to today’s Nutrition Nuggets for cats.

Dr. Jennifer Coates

Source:

Facilitative and functional fats in diets of cats and dogs. Bauer JE. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Sep 1;229(5):680-4.

Image: All you can eat bacon / via Chuba & Company

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Comments  2

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  • Ratios
    03/29/2013 06:20pm

    "The fact that good cholesterol concentrations are higher than the concentrations of bad cholesterol is part of the mechanism that protects them from cardiac diseases that may affect humans."

    Does this have any correlation to how cholesterol pills work for humans? If not, it sure sounds like something to investigate.

  • The term "functional"
    04/05/2013 04:31pm

    Dr. Bauer wrote several articles in 2006 on essential fatty acids and our pets, but they don't equate to saturated fats that cause cardiac issues, so I am not seeing a connection here that would prevent our pets from developing the same diseases as humans.

    In 2008, (two years after Dr. Bauer's papers), Dr. Deb Zoran was talking about some new scientific information that was coming out in connection with the alteration, (gonadectomies), of our sedentary house pets. As she put it in her workshops, they have been "plunged into menopause" relating to the hormonal changes that happen, and the resulting 'human' like diseases are developing such as obesity and diabetes. The same hormones such as leptin and grehlin were being listed as the culprits.

    Two examples of these papers are: http://jfm.sagepub.com/content/6/4/207.full.pdf and
    http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1304744

    I would want to see the reference material that Dr. Bauer has used to support his arguments as I have personally seen cats that were fed high fat canned foods end up on the feline heart list within a short period of going into diabetes remission. One owner's description of a necropsy was that there were "bands of fat" around the cat's heart.

    If Dr Bauer's references were collecting data from intact male pets, as has been done in most research situations, it wouldn't be relevent to whether our altered, sedentary house pets would have the same issues, IMHO. There is no information at the link you have given us as a reference, here.

 



ABOUT NUTRITION NUGGETS

JENNIFER COATES, DVM

Photo of Jennifer

... graduated with honors from the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine in 1999. In the years since, she has practiced veterinary medicine in Virginia, Wyoming, and Colorado. She is the author of several books about veterinary medicine and animal care, including the Dictionary of Veterinary Terms, Vet-Speak Deciphered for the Non-Veterinarian .

Jennifer also writes short stories that focus on the strength and importance of the human-animal bond and freelance articles relating to a variety of animal care and veterinary topics. Dr. Coates lives in Fort Collins, Colorado with her husband, daughter, and pets.

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